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Rezo Bragin
Rezo Bragin

We Found 283 Resources For You.. [TOP]



Union County cares about its four-legged residents too! Please use this site to learn more about local animal rescue resources and information for what to do if you encounter a lost pet or have been bitten by an animal.




We found 283 resources for you..


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Get help from AVA, the TSP virtual assistant, to get answers to general questions. To ask AVA account-specific questions and to connect to a ThriftLine Representative during business hours for a live chat session, log in to My Account and select the icon found on the bottom right of the page.


In the reserved area and rare plant protection locations, the native dominant tree species (primarily hemlock, pine and oak) are managed passively, and will convert over time to a more mesic forest condition. Passive canopy management will determine the ecological characteristics of the site. In the savanna and sand prairie restoration areas, the native dominant savanna tree species (primarily oaks) are managed passively. However, some thinning of the canopy, understory manipulation and shrub control via harvest, brushing or fire may be needed to mimic natural disturbance patterns. Augmentation of the ground layer in the savanna and prairie restorations will only add species that historically would have been found on the site, using seeds or plugs from local genetic material species; this usually occurs in the early stages of restoration. Other allowable activities include control of invasive plants and animals, maintenance of existing facilities, and access to suppress wildfires. Salvage of trees after a major wind event can occur if the volume of woody material inhibits fire prescriptions.


This SNA has multiple landowners: Opportunities for hunting and trapping depend on the land owner. In general, most DNR-owned land allows hunting and trapping. Partner-owned land may have other rules (for example, university-owned lands do not allow hunting or trapping). Please contact them directly to find out about their rules for hunting and trapping. You can find a link to other owner websites under the "Resource links" heading above. More details regarding allowable uses on the non-DNR land may be found under the "Access" tab above, if available.


Poor haemodynamic tolerance to an effusion are suggested by an inspiratory rise of greater than 40- 50% in right heart flows, or a decrease of more than 25-40% in left heart flows with an inverted E/A ratio across the mitral and tricuspid valves. The E/A ratio is the ratio of early diastolic ventricular filling velocity to the higher late diastolic blood velocity caused by atrial contraction. The quantity of effusion present can be estimated by using the plarimetry function (area estimation) commonly found on most echocardiograph machines but is not necessarily a predictor of haemodynamic compromise.


We performed a literature review, whole genome sequencing on 145 GBS isolates collected from six Southeast Asian countries, and phylogenetic analysis on 7,468 GBS sequences including 227 variants of ST283 from humans and animals. Although almost absent outside Asia, ST283 was found in all invasive Asian collections analysed, from 1995 to 2017. It accounted for 29/38 (76%) human isolates in Lao PDR, 102/139 (73%) in Thailand, 4/13 (31%) in Vietnam, and 167/739 (23%) in Singapore. ST283 and its variants were found in 62/62 (100%) tilapia from 14 outbreak sites in Malaysia and Vietnam, in seven fish species in Singapore markets, and a diseased frog in China.


Institutions, selected through personal contacts and recommendations, were invited to contribute GBS and/or datasets. There were no specified criteria other than the availability of isolates or DNA from invasive GBS, or GBS from high vaginal swabs, over time, with metadata if possible. Invasive disease was defined as isolation of GBS from normally sterile sites. Indications for testing patients and accompanying characterisation data were not standardised or complete; rates of meningitis, osteoarthritis, and endocarditis may therefore be greater than recorded. Country-specific regulations resulted in some contributors sending GBS isolates to Singapore for processing while others contributed extracted DNA, whole genome sequencing (WGS) data, or other data sets. GBS were screened with a ST283-specific PCR (Lezhava A., Sarma S., Chen S. and Barkham T.M.S. A method for the detection of Group B Streptococcus. (2017) PCT Patent Application PCT/SG2017/050579). This PCR has been evaluated against WGS on over 660 invasive GBS representing 27 MLST types collected over 18 years in Singapore and found to be 100% sensitive and 99.8% specific. GBS identification, determination of serotype and WGS were performed as previously described [1]. All new sequencing data were deposited in GenBank under BioProject PRJNA293392. We expressed ST283 prevalence as simple proportions of all GBS in each collection (Fig 1).


All CC283 in this table are sequence type (ST) 283: other examples of CC283 were not found. This table shows that ST283 was found in the first year of all newly described GBS collections in Southeast Asia, so it may have predated these collections, and that both GBS numbers available and ST283 proportions vary from year to year.


All newly sequenced GBS isolated from tilapia in Peninsular Malaysia and Vietnam, during outbreaks of streptococcosis, were CC283 (Fig 1, Table 3). Notably, ten of the 28 fish sampled in Malaysia did not have signs of disease. ST283 was previously reported from 17/57 (30%) GBS isolated from seven freshwater fish species, including tilapia, on sale for human consumption in Singapore in 2015: these 17 ST283 were found in only 6/586 (1%) fish from ports, but in 11/39 (28%) fish from markets [10]. Two previously reported ST283 were reported from farmed tilapia in Thailand between 2000 and 2014 [9, 25]. One ST491 and one ST1311, (a new SLV of ST491, and also a double locus variant of ST283) were isolated from tilapia in Vietnam in 2006 [9] and 2016 respectively. An ST739, another SLV of ST283, was isolated in 2014 from a diseased tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) farmed for human consumption in Guangdong, China, about 100Km from Hong Kong; although frogs are not piscine, they are often farmed in close proximity to fish and all known GBS infections in frogs are caused by clades that are also found in fishes [9].


GBS CC283 has been widespread in SE Asia for over two decades in humans, and at least a decade in aquatic animals, but is rare outside SE Asia. As ST283 was found in the first year of every available collection of invasive GBS from SE Asia (Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore), it may have been present even earlier. The estimated date of emergence, of 1985, predates the first known human cases and is roughly contemporaneous with the start of the expansion of aquaculture in SE Asia, based on reports from the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations [56]. The 2015 human outbreak of GBS in Singapore was fish borne; although our current study did not address transmission or consumption patterns, human cases in other parts of Southeast Asia could potentially also be fish-borne, especially since consumption of undercooked aquaculture foods is common in Asia, as shown by the high rate of trematode infections [57, 58]. It is not known to what extent healthy fish may carry ST283, or what the infectious dose for humans may be, but ST283 was isolated from healthy looking fish in Malaysian farms and in Singapore ports and markets, so fish sold for human consumption could be the source of exposure even if visibly diseased fish were excluded from sale. The high proportions of ST283 in invasive human GBS collections suggest that if human ST283 is acquired from aquaculture, or another undetermined food source, then invasive GBS is primarily a foodborne infection in Thailand and Lao PDR, and largely foodborne in Vietnam. The invasive human data from these three countries are all from areas bordering the Mekong River, separated by up to 1,500 km. If the ST283 data is not representative of each whole country, it may represent an epidemiology peculiar to the ecosystem surrounding the river.


The three predominant clades of GBS in fish are associated with different serotypes: ST7 with serotype Ia, CC552 (including ST260) with serotype Ib, and ST283 with serotype III [9]. Commercially available vaccines cover serotype Ib only, or serotypes Ia and III, but without cross-protection between serotypes. Strain confirmation is therefore recommended prior to use of vaccination, but diagnostic infrastructure is very limited in SE Asia, so fish farmers rely on antimicrobial treatment rather than on strain typing and vaccination. Antibiotics, including tetracyclines, are commonly used in controlling streptococcosis [73]. Concentrations above maximum limits have been found in fish sold for consumption in Vietnam [74], which may explain the high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes found in ST283 from Vietnam. However, although similar antimicrobial use is reported in Thailand [75], tetracycline resistance amongst human ST283 from Thailand disappeared after 2012: this loss was also seen in human ST283 from Lao PDR and Singapore, possibly through three separate resistance gene loss events (Fig 2). In contrast, tetracycline resistance was 88% amongst 712 non-ST283 invasive human GBS, isolated in Singapore from 2001 to 2018 (T. Barkham, personal communication).


Students are responsible for understanding the policies and procedures about add/drop, grade forgiveness, etc. Refer to the current semester's Catalog Policies section at Add/drop deadlines can be found on the current academic year calendars document on the Academic Calendars webpage at _calendars/. The Late Drop Policy is available at Students should be aware of the current deadlines and penalties for dropping classes. 041b061a72


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